Ioan Godea Prof.
Sabin Adrian Luca Prof. Cristian Schuster Lect. Florea Unelte litice descoperite ntmpltor n comuna Berislveti, judeul Vlcea Campania Cristian Schuster, Mircea Negru, Ctlin t.
Gaspare Stanggassinger, nato nel a Berchtesgaden, nel sud della Germania, è il secondogenito di 16 figli. Suo padre, uomo rispettato da tutti, è un contadino proprietario di una cava di pietra. Da giovane cresce in lui il desiderio di diventare sacerdote. A dieci anni viene mandato a Freising per continuarvi la sua educazione scolastica.
Campaniile i Laureniu Mecu Scurte note asupra habitatului Glina i Tei Gheorghe Calotoiu The rite, ritual and the chronology btc les gards celtiques guer the TeletiDrgoieti necropola from the Gorj county Mihai Dragnea Importana spaiului maritim n conflictele rusobizantine sec. Dumitru din Rm.
Eugen Deca Cteva consideraii asupra proprietilor viticole i pomicole ale mnstirilor din Vlcea, n trecut Dumitru Garoaf Activitatea de arhiv la principalii creatori de documente din administraia judeului Vlcea n perioada regulamentar Ciprian-Marius Srbu Episcopii Rmnicului i viaa politic romneasc n perioada Un material pentru folosul primarilor Rmnicului i nu doar pentru ei Irinel Cnureci Caracteristici ale habitatului din zona etnografic Cmpia Biletilor Sabin Lungoci Expoziia Srbtorile pascale ilustrate n iconografie.
Al. Rosetti - Istoria Limbii Romane
Florentina Pleniceanu Aspecte ale educaiei pentru patrimoniul etnografic n cadrul relaiei muzeucoal primar Ioan St. Lazr Dumnezeu i meterul su, Dumitru chiopu Vasilica Ciorogar Problematica restaurrii Liturghierul lui Macarie Ruxandra-Ioana Stroia Restaurarea i conservarea piesei textile cap de strjac Daniela Beu Restaurarea unui fragment de pretar Ovidiu Pruanu Msuri de conservare i protejare a exponatelor din spaiile expoziionale ale Muzeului de Istorie a judeului Vlcea Keywords: dwelling, oven, settlement, area, civilization, eneolithic, period of transition.
Sumar: Perioada de tranziie spre epoca bronzului, respectiv etapa final este reprezentat n zona deluroas i montan a Olteniei de purttorii civilizaiei Coofeni.
Comunitile culturii menionate mai sus ocup mai toate formele de locuire, staiuni arheologice fiind atestate pe insule, terase, vrfuri de deal etc. Referitor la construcii, predomin locuinele de suprafa, alturi de care cercetrile semnaleaz apariia bordeielor i a colibelor-locuine cu structur uoar. O mare parte a locuinelor dein instalaii de nclzit, alctuite din vetre i cuptoare; dar i amenajri interioare, reprezentate prin podine din lut. Abstract: The transition period to the Bronze Age, respectively the final stage, is represented, in the hill and mountain area of Oltenia, by the bearers of Coofeni civilization.
The communities of the above culture occupy all forms of habitat, archaeological sites being certified in islands, terraces, hilltops etc. Concerning constructions, there are prevailing the surface houses, with whom the researches indicate the occurrence of the huts-which are lightweight housing.
Most of the houses have heating installations, consisting of hearths and ovens; but also interior improvements, represented by clay floorings. Geographical landscape. Mens life is closely related to the land where he lives. The arhitecture of this ,land, its look and wealth determine the basic occupations of the inhabitants.
In Prehistory, especially the influence of the land on men was very big. The more the men evolves technologically, the less the influence of the environment is, but it will never vanish at all. This is the reason why, in order to study ancient peoples life we must know the places where they lived.
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- Она вспомнила полночный разговор с Майклом О'Тулом, когда они находились в Узле возле Сириуса.
- Спасибо, намного лучше, - ответила Николь.
The mountain and hill area of Oltenia include three big landforms: mountains, hills, plateau. The mountain region forms a part from the huge structural unit of the southern Carpathian laying from the Perisani mountains and Magura Codle to bursa de valori bucuresti firme Danube Bazias and Iron Gates2.
For Oltenia, the mountain area is formed by the heaps: Parang, Vulcan and Cernas mountains.
Buridava X - 2012
The characteristic elements of the Sub-Carpathic area, that somehow differentiats it from the other Sub-Carpathains, are the narrowing of the Sub-Carpathic region and the less emphasizzed folds then those from the East of Dambovita, where these frequentely reach to diapirism3.
This landform was created by the leveling which cut in old landforms crystalline schists, limestones, sandstonesbut also in miocene sedimentary rocks and it was mainly made durring the pleistocene, at the end of which the resulted surface at the border of the mountain mainly by abrasionbegan to be raised and to be submitted to fragmentation4.
The working area is delimited hydrographically by the river Olt East and the Btc les gards celtiques guer Westthe territory between these two important hydrographic networks is crossed by the river Jiu. The location of the country in the 45o parallel, leads to the registration of a little difference between the time of days and nights from North to South, as well as the existence of a reduced difference between the annual temperatures from the North border to the Southern border5.
The climate6 is temperate continental, with Mediterranean influences, the arrangement in steps of the relief plateau, hill, mountain leading to a natural setting of the climate elements.
Brief History of studying the habitat in the Coofeni culture period The great area of spreading of the event in question occupies the West of Muntenia, Oltenia, North-West of Btc les gards celtiques guer, North-East of Serbia, the inside of the Carpathian arch except the low areas and the South of Maramure7.
In the whole spreading area have been identified about sites8, which only in Romania9. Ieleniczp. The settlements 1.
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- Значит, - говорила Николь кудрявому инопланетянину с невероятно глубокими синими глазами, - существует бесчисленное множество вселенных, каждую из которых создал Бог при различных начальных условиях, а потом Он каким-то образом поместил вас и Орла в Узел и Раму, чтобы собирать информацию.
- Так, ей пришло в голову спросить, почему у одних Узлов четыре модуля, а у других - три.
The location of the settlements 1. On islands: Ostrovul Corbului23 and Ostrovul imian On natural channels: Castrele Traiane25 and Plenia Of heights: 1. Roman ; Idem Ciugudean Settlements placed on tells: Slcua According to the way of organizing 2.
The majority of this kind of settlements is placed in areas in which the nature played a protective role settlements situated on headlands, terrace spurs etc.
PREFA Ediia definitiv a Istoriei noastre cuprinde unele modificri in expunerea problemelor, precum i adaosuri n text i n note, n scopul de a ine lucrarea la curent cu informaia nou. Anexa cuprinde 44 de noi expuneri, aprute n publicaii periodice, ncepnd din anul
Fortified settlements: Castrele Traiane54, Plenia55, iacu For the settlements at Castrele Romane and Plenia we have information regarding the use of the defensive sistem consisting in ditches and mounds of defense.
Btc les gards celtiques guer the fortification from iacu Gorj countythe ambiguous informations does not reveal us the defense sistem they used. It is important to mention the fact btc les gards celtiques guer the fortification of the above mentioned settlements is realised during the phase III of Coofeni Culture, probably due to an external danger; the same phenomenon is also observed in the Glina civilisation phase II-III contemporary to the phase III Coofeni.
The high levels of deposit belonging to the concerned manifestation entitle us to fit the sites in the above mentioned category.
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Liciup. The authors do not speak about a tell settlement here.
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XV, the layer of culture has a thickness between ,20 m59, the level totally belongs to the phase III. In Vlcea County, at Ocnele Mari-Zdup, the level of culture begings at a depth of 0,60 m and it ends at -3,60 m It is interesting that all the phases of evolution are represented, the layer of culture indicating a long term settlement. The problem of the tell settlements in Coofeni culture area it is brieffly presented by Cristian Popa; except from those pesented above, the author identifies some in Transilvania Settlements with an obvious economic character of exploiting of some resources.
In the saline platform around Ocnele Mari it has been certificated a number of five settlements in which salt exploiting had the major role. We mention that in the points from Ocnele Mari-Coasta Ungureasc, Ocnele MariCosota, Ocnele Mari- Zdup, Govora-Dealul Spunarului and Czneti the salt was extracted using briquetting vessels truncated glassesand from here it was realized a commerce with neighboring areas The time of using the settlements 3.
Settlements used for an average period of time, mentioned by a single level of habitation, but rich in archaeological material are reported at Castrele Traiane, Rogova, Cetuia, Vr, Govora-Dealul Spunarului, Roiile, Oprior, Mateeti, Czneti, Craiova etc.
The majority of the discoveries from the area fit in this type.
Seasonal settlements used for a short period of time generally placed in the mountain area or caves area or in places where establishment was linked to a certain economic practice. Grigore Decapolitul-Costesti65 etc. Dimensions Insuficient researches in the hill and mountain area of Oltenia present a pretty concise image regarding the dimensions of Coofeni settlements. At Ostrovul Corbului, the deposits along the Danubes shore are distinguishable on about linear meters, and an appreciation of the complexes spreading is Roman, Opriescup.
We underline that the theory is just a suposition, because the little researched area does not show us a clear situation. For this kind of settlement as well we find out that the dwellings are oriented in most of the cases parallel to the Danube East-Westpositioned in the most prominent zone and along the Danube At Ocnia-Cosota the archeological researches from Buridava Dacic and especially from the Acropola led to the discovery of an important lot of material, the area for this point being of about m At Brne, the Coofeni settlement is located on a headland with the dimensions x 60 m69, the living area being of about m2.
From the personal researches made at Cetuia, where on the headland on which the discoveries from here have been made, the living area is about m2.
Regarding the site from Rogova Mehedini countythe author suggests the idea that the Coofeni settlement occupied a squared perimeter with the side of 40 m70, the living area being therefore m2.
By all the facts presented above, we assert that the Coofeni settlements are classified in big dimensions settlements and small dimensions settlements. The way of dividing in different zones the settlements. Having a mixed economy, mostly pastoral, we consider that these could have been divided in zones for sheltering the cattle and zones for living. Constructions 1.
Form: 1. Ovoid: Vr, Ostrovul Corbului. The archeological researches from Vr led to the discovery of a fifth type hut71, ovoid form, diameter between m For Ostrovul Corbului the situation is different; some pits can be classified as hut type dwellings.
In the South part of S. II, S. Near the step, in the left side, has been discovered a stake pit with the diameter of 35 cm Petre Roman, the coordinator of the diggings from here, considers that Gr. XII, Sector A, level 4, has been researched a pit with big dimensions ovoid form as in the picturewhich pierced Slcua level having in the middle 66 67 Romanp. Roman, Opriescup. Is remarkable the fact that Sector B, S.
Rectangular: Brne, Ostrovul Corbului.
In the inferior level research has been discovered a rectangular hut with rounded edges, dimensions 2,70 x 2,30 m, maximum depth being of 0,70 m The dwelling has a stake pit in the middle for supporting the roof. At Ostrovul Corbului in S. XV, Sector A has been researched a rectangular pit with the length of 2,80 m and depth of 0,80 m In the yearsat Rogova La Cazrmi, it has been researched a dwelling with the dimensions 2,75 x 1,45 m and depth 0,80 m Two years later, it has been reported the presence of two complexes of same type, without being presented any details about the form or the depth of the constructions Surface dwellings 2.
We find them at Rogova, Ostrovul Corbului and Brne. In the point La Cazrmi from Rogova many rectangular dwellings have been researched. Though, intwo dwellings were unveiled, the first one partially researched a year before, dimensions 3,45 x 2,80 m with the edges slightly rounded85, and the second one with dimensions 4,40 x 2,00 m The coordinator of the research launches the hypothesis that the first dwelling had an interior pit that used for gathering the excess humidity from the level of the floor Ibidem, p.
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XII at level four, it is recalled a dwelling with dimensions 4,00 x 3,00 m88, and in S. XII-l two rectangular dwellings with dimensions 6,50 x 2,70 m89, respectively 3,25 x 2,40 m I level two, a 3,00 cm thick platform has been discovered, with dimensions 5,00 m North South and 3,25 m East West, having stakes for supporting the walls inside and also outside L shaped dwellings.
In Sector A. In the North East, many stake holes seem the suggest according to the discoverer the existence of a veranda or an annex of 2 x 2 m The walls of the dwelling had interior and exterior stakes, the thickness being between 0,30 m.
Oval dwellings. The researches made with the occasion of building a water basin on hill Cetuia from Rmnicu Vlcea led to the discovery of a Coofeni dwelling with the length of 4,50 m At Brne, in the years the archeological researches led tot the discovery of two surface dwellings noted with L. Both dwellings have interior hearths, their improvement being directly on the ground, without floor.
The researches from led to the discovery of a surface dwelling noted probably L. Bwith small dimensions, in the second level of inhabitation. It could not be specified the form or the existence of an interior improvement At Bzdna-Calopr, in Dolj county, has been signaled at dwelling with a form that could not be established, because of the landslides from the North area of the sit At iacu, settlement have been partially discovered two surface dwellings, weakly preserved their accentuation is made after the parts of burned adobe and the ceramic fragments The walls are made of wattles covered with clay, of small dimensions, btc les gards celtiques guer in the settlements from Ostrovul Simian, Vr99 and Copcelu At Ostrovul Simian and Vr, the huts were referred after the form of the adobe collected around fire hearth, their form being round or ellipsoidal.
Regarding that from Copcelu, the small researched area does not show us a clear image which could suggest an eventual form.